Below you will find an example discursive essay. Read the essay over carefully. Study it and work out how it has been written.
Whilst reading the mac hdd cleaner
essay, consider the following questions, writing down your ideas -
what is the main idea the speed up osx
writer is arguing about? each paragraph has a sub-topic which contributes to the essay's main topic - what does each paragraph contribute to the argument? what evidence does the writer offer to support the arguments? which of the three suggested structures identified earlier does the writer adopt in this essay? does the writer link ideas clearly in the essay? You will probably want to read the essay over twice to help you answer these questions.
1 A subject which always arouses strong feelings on both sides of the mac hdd cleaner
argument is the use of animals in medical research. I believe that, though this may have been necessary in the past, other ways can be developed to test drugs and, in the tune up my mac key
future, animals should not be used.
2 One of my main reasons for saying this is that living tissues can be grown in test tubes and new drugs can be tested on these. Computers can also be programmed to show how medicines will react in the mac hdd cleaner
3 Moreover, animals are not always like humans. They do not suffer from all human diseases, so scientists have to give them the illnesses artificially. The joints in rabbit legs are inflamed with chemicals to help research in mac hdd cleaner
rheumatism. These tests do not always work because animals do not react to mac hdd cleaner
drugs in the same way as humans. Aspirin, for does running windows on mac slow it down,
example, damages pregnant mice and mac hdd cleaner
dogs, but not pregnant women. Arsenic, which is a deadly poison for humans, has no effect on sheep, while penicillin, which is so valuable to humans, kills guinea pigs.
4 In addition, I believe that animal experiments should not be used because of the unnecessary pain that they cause to animals. The government introduced new rules about the use of animals in experiments in 1986. mac hdd cleaner?
Scientists claim that these rules safeguard animals because they state that discomfort must be kept to a minimum and mac hdd cleaner
that painkillers must be used where necessary and appropriate. Surely this means, however, that scientists can still decide not to use painkillers in the animal experiments because they do not consider them appropriate. The British Union against Vivisection claims that 75% of animals experimented on are given no anaesthetic.
5 In spite of the claims of some scientists about the effectiveness of mac hdd cleaner
animal research, the death rate in this country has stayed the same over the mac hdd cleaner
last thirty years. There is also more long-term sickness, even though greater numbers of animals are being used in mac hdd cleaner
6 On the other hand, scientists claim that some experiments are so small, for mac hdd cleaner,
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injection, that painkillers are not needed. They also argue that experiments on dublicate file finder
animals have been very useful in the past. For instance, the lives of ten million human diabetics have been saved because of experiments with insulin on dogs. Dogs also benefited, as the dublicate file finder
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them. In fact, a third of medicines used by vets are the same as those used by doctors.
7 It is argued by researchers that the use of animals in experiments cannot be replaced by methods using living tissue which has been grown in test tubes. These tests do not show how the mac hdd cleaner
drugs work on whole animals and so they only have limited effectiveness.
8 Although I accept that some drugs can be used on mac hdd cleaner
animals and humans, this does not mean that they have to be tested on animals in the first place when alternative methods are available. Alternative methods do work. Various groups have been set up to put money into other ways of researching. mac hdd cleaner?
For example the Dr. Hadwen Trust has shown how human cartilage can be grown in test tubes to study rheumatism. Similar research is being done into cancer and mac hdd cleaner
multiple sclerosis. Tests can be done on bacteria to does running windows on mac slow it down
see whether a chemical will cause cancer. mac hdd cleaner?
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even a programme of volunteer human researchers, where people suffering from illnesses offer to help in research.
9 In conclusion, I accept that animal experiments have brought great benefits in the past, but now money needs to be spent on mac hdd cleaner
developing other methods of testing drugs and medical procedures, so that the use of animals can be phased out altogether.
Now that you have read the essay and, hopefully, written down some ideas in response to the questions, look over the following commentson the essay.
The comments are presented as answers to the questions provided. This way you can check your own ideas against dublicate file finder,
What is the main idea the writer is arguing about ?
The writer is trying to argue that it is time to dublicate file finder
stop us animals for scientific experimentation.
Each paragraph has a sub-topic which contributes to the essay's main topic: what does each paragraph contribute to the argument?
What evidence does the writer offer to suport the arguments?
Which of the three suggested structures identified earlier does the writer adopt in this essay?
The writer is trying to argue strongly Against a given idea (i.e. that animal experiments are acceptable).
Does the writer link ideas clearly in the speed up osx
There is clear evidence of good linkage in the essay:
'One of tune up my mac key
my main reasons. mac hdd cleaner?
' (para 2) 'Moreover. ' (para 3) clearly continues argument 'In addition. ' (para 4) clearly moves argument on 'On the other hand. Does running windows on mac slow it down?
' (para 6) signals clearly that the writer is moving on to arguments the opposing side would offer in support of experiments 'In conclusion. ' (para 9) clearly indicates argument drawing to a close.